Order of Prayer (Namaz)

Basic of Namaz

Faraiz  |   Sunnat  |  Wajibat  | The Actions Nullifying the Prayer The Undesirable Acts (Makroohat) for Prayer   |  Circumstances Under Which Breaking of Prayer is Permissible  |  Sijdah-e-Sahu (Sijdah For Errors In Namaz)

Allah says:-

                                                                                     Allah ordered to establish prayer (Salat)
Allah ordered to establish prayer (Salat)

Allah says:-

                        (S23- A9 & 10) Those who protect their prayer (Salat), inherit paradise and they will live there forever.
(S23- A9 & 10) Those who protect their prayer (Salat), inherit paradise and
they will live there forever.

Hadith Shareef :-

                     Hadith Shareef
Hzt. Nabi Kareem Sal'am said prayer (salah) is the pillar of the religion, one who establishes
it (salah) establishes the religion and one who left it, (salah), demolishes his religion.

Hadith Shareef :-

                             Hadith Shareef
Hzt, Nabi Kareem sal'am said, for every thing there is a sign (symbol) and
the sign of Iman is prayer (Namaz).

Hadith Shareef :-

                              Hadith Shareef
Hzt, Nabi Kareem Sal'am said one who missed prayer (salah) intentionaly is indeed an
infidel (Kafir).

Hadith Shareef :-

                              Hadith Shareef
Hzt. Nabi Kareem Sal'am said, there is no difference between Islam and infedility (Kufr)
excepting the prayer (salah).

Hadith Shareef :-

                                   Hadith Shareef
Hzt. Nabi Kareem Sal'am said that one who left the (salah) is the one who is condemned (Malun) person of the prayer.

Hzt Nabi Kareem Sal'am said that prayer (salah) is the zenith (Ma’raj) of Muslim.

Important: At Sun rise, Sun set and Noon, prayer (Salah) Sijdah-e-Tilavat, and Funeral prayer (Namaz-e-Janaza) is not permissible. Because it is narrated by Aqba Bin Aamer Raz. in Saheeh Muslim etc. He said Hzt. Mohammed Sal'am prohibited saying prayer (Salah), or laying dead bodies in graves, when the sun rises until it goes up, at noon until it declines, and at sun set until it disappears. In Muta it is written that Anhazrat Sal'am prohibited saying prayer (salah) during these three times. At the time of setting sun only Asr prayer (salah)is permissible. since it is narrated in Hadith Shareef that one who gets even one Rakat of prayer (salah) he gets complete prayer, it is narrated by many scholars through reliable (Sahee) sources. (Sahee Muslim & Noorul Hadaya)

Important: Hzt, Nabi Kareem Sal'am prohibited to offer Nafeel (Salah) after Fajr prayer till sun rise. And after Asr prayer until sun set. (Saheeh Muslim, N.H.)

Important: Five times prayers (Salah) have been declared obligatory in Shabe-e-Meraj, one and half years before the migration (Hijrah). Before this only two prayers were offerred, one before sun rise and the other before sun set (Ghayatul Autar)

Important: Hzt. Nabi Kareem Sal'am said, instruct the children to offer prayers at the age of ‘7’ years. After the age of ‘10’ years if they abstain from the prayer then punish them with the hands. (Ghayatul Autar & Tirmizi)

Important: Prayer (salah) is the special bless of Allah. The Ruku (Bending), Sijdah (Prostration), Qaida (Sitting) and Qaiyam (Standing position), are its limbs and meant for the purification of heart. Concentration of mind is its soul. Therefore the fundamental principle of prayer (salah) should be to perform it perfectly and properly. Since its accomplishment in hurry, performing of any of the fundamentals improperly renders the prayer imperfect and defective. Hzt. Abu Huraira Raz. narrated that Rassol-e-Kareem Sal'am came to the mosque, a person came offered his prayer (Salat) then offered his Salams to the prophet (PBUH) and he replied and asked him to repeat his prayer (salat) as he has not performed the prayer (properly). He went back and performed the prayer (Salat) in the same way and made salam to the prophet Sal'am, Anhazrat Sallam replied his salam and ordered him to say his prayer again as he has not said it (properly). Three times he did like wise. At last he said to the prophet (PBUH) by Allah, who sent thee as a true messenger, I can not perform better prayer than this, please tell me how to perform it. The prophet (PBUH) said, ‘when you stand for prayer (Salat) say Allaho Akber, then recite the Holy Quran as much as you can, then bow down in Ruku properly, then resume the standing position by raising the head and then prostrate (Sijdah) with peace of mind, then raising head sit erect properly. Thus perform the complete prayer (salah) satisfactorily. (Saheeh Muslim Shareef)

Important: One must go to mosque for prayer in fine clothes just like a courtier attends the Royal Court in robes. Allah had commanded people to do so in the Holy Quran:-

                                    (7-31) ‘O’ Children of Adam (Alaihs Salam) wear your beautiful garments for offering every prayer.
(7-31) ‘O’ Children of Adam (Alaihs Salam) wear your beautiful garments for offering
every prayer.

The saintly people used to do accordingly. The author saw his spiritual guide (Murshid) (may God shower his grace and mercy on him) always offering the (Salat) prayer with the (pagdi) turban, fine gown or angrakha duly wrapping the cloth (Rumal) around the waist in every prayer.

Important: The dress we do not like to wear before people is undesirable for prayer.
(Noorul Hudaya)

Important: The Musally (One who is following in the congregational or group prayer) should know obligatory acts (Farz) of prayer. It is obligatory (Farz) for him and having knowledge of essential (Wajib) acts, is wajib (Essential), knowing traditional (Sunnah) acts is Sunnat and desirable act (Mustahab) is also desirable (Mustahab) for him . Because if one does not remember obligatory essential and traditional acts then the prayer will become void and defective. And for lack of knowledge Sijdah-e-Sahu, if necessary, would not be known. In Fatawai kubra, Naseri, Shahbi and Masoudi, it is written that the person who does not have knowledge about Obligatory, Traditional, and Essential actions, his prayer (Salat) will not be permissible.

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Faraiz Namaz (Obligatory Act of prayer)

1.   Keeping of body clean.
2.   Clothes to be clean.
3.   Place to be clean.
4.   Satur-e-Aurat (parts of body which are essential to hide) to be covered
5.   To make Niyyat (Intention) for prayer (Salat).
6.   Know the timing of the prayer (Namaz).
7.   Knowing the direction of the Qibla.
8.   Saying Allaho Akber.
9.   Observing the Qiyam.
10. To recite the Holy Quran.
11. To perform Ruku (Bending)
12. To offer two Sajdas. (prostration)
13. To sit in last Qaida.
14. To come out of the Namaz with intention.

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Wajibat-e-Namaz (Essential Actions of prayer)

1.   Reciting of Surah-e-Fathiha (First surah of the Holy Quran)
2.   Reciting any other surah (Verses of the Holy Quran) after Surah-e-Fatiha
3.   Determination and recitation of Qir’at in the first two Rakats. (Tayyun-e-Qirat) (2)
4.   Correct performance of different postures.
5.   To sit in the first Qaed-e-Awwal. (3)
6.   To recite Tashahud.
7.   Saying Assalm Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi.
8.   Reciting of Dua-e-Qunoot in vitre prayer.
9.   Pronounce six additional Takbeerat in Eid-ain. (Festival prayer)
10. Reciting Holy Quran loudly in two Rakat of Fajer, Magrib, Isha, Farz prayers.
11. Offering Zohar and Asr prayers (salah) silently.
12. Performing all actions in serial order.
(1) Zamm-e-Surah means recitation of any Quranic verse or (3) small verses of the Holy book, after recitation of Surah-e-Fatiha. If the recitation of the other verses after Fatiha, is delayed for more than the time consumed for reciting “Allah-Humma Salla Ala Mohammed” then the Sajda-e-Shau, would be essential.

(2) Tayyun-e-Qirat mean to determine the recitation of the Zamm-e-Surah in the first two Rakat of the Farz Namaz (prayer). The recitation of Zamm-e-Surah in the Second and third Rakat and fourth Rakat would render the leaving of an essential (Wajib) act and the Sajd-e-Sahu would be essential.

(3) Qaed-e-Awal means sitting after completion of two Rakats of Namaz (Prayer) in four Rakats Namaz (prayer). In this sitting the Athiyat is to be recited. Sitting beyond the recitation of the Athiyat even for the duration of saying ‘Allah-humma Salle-e-Ala Mohammed” would be equalent to leaving an essential (Wajib) and hence Sajda-e-Sahu would be essential (Wajib)

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Sunnat-e-Namaz (Traditional Action of prayer)

1.   To raise the hands up to the ears for men, and for women up to shoulders. (Raf-e-Yden)(1)
2.   Placing hands below the Navel for male and below the chest for female. (Waz-e-Ydaiyan)
3.   Reciting of Sana
4.   Reciting Taawez in full.
5.   Reciting Bismillah Irrehman Nirrahim.
6.   Reciting(Tasbeehat Ruku and Sujood) invocation of bending & prostation.
7.   Saying Allaho Akber while shifting from one position to another.
8.   To recite samiallah-huliman Hameeda.
9.   Stay in Qaoma and Jalsa.
10. Reciting Durood Shareef.
11. Reciting Dua-e-Masoora.
12. Saying Amin at the end of Soor-e-Fatiha.

Important: Satar-e-Aurat means covering naked body during prayer.(2) For man it is from Navel to below the knees and for a woman except face, both hands (upto palms) and feet upto ankles covering the whole body is obligatory (Farz). And for a slave girl, it is just like a man, but the difference is that her belly and back part should also be covered. (Malabudh)
(1) Raf-e-Ydayen means raising the hands while calling the Takbir ‘Allah-hu-Akber’.

(2) The word Satar-e-Aurat (Woman) is used in Islamic law (Shariah) for the parts of the body which are compulsorily to be covered by both male and female. The exposure of such parts is prohibited (Haram).

Important: If ¼th part of the Satar-e-Aurat is exposed, the prayer (Namaz) will not be permissible.

Important: If a person is unable to know the Qibla at any place, he should think it otherwise his prayer will not be permissible. He should offer prayer towards the direction which he thinks to be Qibla. If he is wrong in his imagination, he should not repeat the prayer again. If he discovers his mistake during his prayer he should turn towards that direction (while is) prayer itself. (Alamgiri)

The time of Qiyam (standing) is that if extended hands may not reach up to knees. Standing in this position for some time will accomplish Qiyam. (Alamgiri)

During the prayer, Qiyam is obligatory (Farz) for the duration which is obligatory for recitation of the Holy Quran (Equivalent to one big verse). And Qiyam equivalent to Surah-e-Fatiha and a amall Surat of the Holy Book is essential (Wajib). More than this is Sunnat or desirable (Mustahab) (Durre Muktar)

Standing on one foot without any excuse is undesirable (Makrooh). (Alamgiri)

Offering prayer sitting is permissible in the following circumstances:
1. iIlness
2. Nakedness
3. Old age

Otherwise offering, Farz or adjoining prayer, sitting is not permissible. (Durre Muktar)

A sick person who is unable to perform Ruku, Sajood (Prostration), or stand to offer the prayer (Namaz) can offer Namaz sitting by the gestures and signs of the movement of the head must bend it more for Sajda than Ruku. If no difference is made in the said signs then the prayer will be void. (Alamgiri)

If it is not possible to offer prayer (Salah) sitting even after support, it is permitted to offer Namaz lying. (Alamgiri)

Qiyam (standing position) is not obligatory in offering the Nafil Salah (prayer). It can be offered sitting without any excuse. (Durre Mukhtar)

In two Rakats of Farz Namaz, recitation of Surah (after the Surah-e-Fatiha) is obligatory (Farz). In any Farz Namaz like two Rakat prayer or three Rakats or four Rakats prayer, recitation of Surah or Chapter from the Holy Quran (after Surah-e-Fatiha) is obligatory (Farz). It may be recited in any two of the Rakat. If it is not recited in both Rakats or recited in only one Rakat then the prayer will be invalid. In vitr and Nafil prayer reciting of the surah of the Holy Quran (after the Surah-e-Fatiha) in all the three Rakats or four Rakats is obligatory (Farz). (Alamgiri, Nytul Musalli, Sharhe Vaqaya)

The prayer (Namaz) of a dumb person or an ignorant person who cannot read any thing (from the Holy Book) is accomplished without uttering any thing. (Alamgiri)

Except a disabled person, a person having capacity to read the Quran properly, uttering Quranic words incorrectly is improper. (Alamgiri)

A crooked person, who is always in bending (Ruku) position, can perform Ruku by gesture of the head. (Alamgiri)

Hzt Rasool Kareem Sal'am used to keep his head neither high, nor low in Ruku, but in between these two positions (Muslim Ibne Maja)

In every Rakat of the prayer (Namaz) two Sijdah are obligatory (Alamgiri)

If a person without any excuse, puts only his nose on the ground in Sajda and not the fore head, then his Sajda is unaccomplished. There is a religious verdict in this regard too. But if there is an excuse then it is permissible. If he places only his fore-head and not his nose, his Sijdah is undesirable (Makrooh). (Alamgiri)

Sijdah should be performed on the hard part of the nose. If it is performed on the soft part of the nose, it is not permissible. (Alamgiri)

If Sijdah is performed on cotton bed or grass the nose and fore-head do not touch the ground properly, i.e. if pressed the head goes further down, then the Sijdah is unaccomplished, other wise it is accomplished. (Alamgiri)

If a person has a wound on his fore-head and not on the nose, then he will not be capable of doing Sijdah. He should do Sijdah on his nose. Since it is essential (Wajib) to perform Sijdah on the nose itself. In such condition the prayer will be unaccomplished if the Sijdah is performed with a gesture of the head. After one Sijdah, rise to the position of sitting. Performing two sijdah without a pause in between, will not be counted as sijdah. (Alamgiri, Ghayatul Autar)

If there is a thorn at the place of sijdah, then raising the head and placing at another place, is counted as one sijdah only. The second sijdah should be performed seperately (Hizzul Musallin)

Hzt. Anas Raz. narrated that Hzt. Rasool-e-Kareem Sal'am ordered him to fix his eyes at the place of sijdah (Shoeb-ul-Iman)

Important: In prayer (Namaz) which is to be performed loudly reciting Quranic Surah or passages should not be too loudly or too low in tone. The moderate voice should be adopted. (IAhsan-ul-Masail)

Important: In the begining Anhazrat Sal'am used to recite, the Holy Quran loudly in all prayers. At this the infidels and poly-theists began teasing and abusing him. At that time the following verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet:


Neither tell your prayers loudly nor in a low tone in all prayers but find out a way in between.

After this revelation Hzt. Rasool-e-Kareem Sal'am recited silently in Zohr and, Asr prayers (Namaz), and loudly in Fajr, Magrib and, Isha prayers (Namaz). He did so because the infidels were busy, taking meals at the time of Magrib prayer and sleeping at the time of ‘Isha and Fajr prayers. (Ghayatul Autar)

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The Actions Nullifying the Prayer (Namaz)

1.  Talking while in prayer
2.  Making salam intentionally
3.  Giving reply to salam intentionally or by mistake
4.  Uttering Ah or Oph.
5.  Weeping loudly
6.  Coughing with out reason
7.  Responding to some one’s sneez
8.  Responding to good or bad news
9.  Giving hint (luqma) on some Quranic recital mistake to any body other than the Imam or
     receiving such hint (luqma) from person who is not in the congregation
10. Reciting the Holy Quran seeing the book
11. To perform sijdah on an unclean place
12. In the invocation (Dua) to ask Allah for a thing which is usually asked for from human being.
13. Drinking or eating some thing during the Namaz
14. Doing any action which is outside the salat
15. To stand ahead of the Imam
16. Turning face from Qibla to any other direction
17. To commit mistake in Quranic recital that changes its meanings
18. Laughter
19  Uncovering of ¼th part of the body, covering of which is mandatory (Satar Aurat)
20. A woman wearing thin clothes
21. Standing men and women in the same row. (Noorul Hadaya & Ghayatul Autar)

Important: During the prayer (Namaz) if somebody finds something less than a gram in his teeth and swallows it then his prayer will not be nullified. If it is as big as a gram or more and he swallows it, his prayer will be nullified. (Durre Mukhtar)

If a person started prayer after eating sweets and felt its taste in his mouth, his prayer will not be nullified. If sweet remains in the mouth or any thing of the size of seed falls in his mouth from out side and he swallowed it, his prayer will be invalid. (Alamgiri)

Top  |  Faraiz  |  Sunnat  |  Wajibat  | The Actions Nullifying the Prayer The Undesirable Acts (Makroohat) For Prayer  |  Circumstances Under Which Breaking of Prayer is Permissible  |  Sijdah-e-Sahu (Sijdah For Errors In Namaz)


The Undesirable Acts (Makroohat) For Prayer

In the prayer (Namaz) it is undesirable to:

1.  Let the covering sheet of the head hang down on the shoulders or wearing robe (upper
     garment) with out putting hands in the sleeves.
2.  Pulling the clothes together while performing prayer (Namaz), raising sleeves or the front of
     the shirt.
3.  To play with the body or clothes.
4.  To offer prayer (Namaz) with hair tied in a top knot.
5.  To mop the fingers.
6.  To turn the neck right and left.
7.  Removing the small pieces of stone from the place of sijdah.
8.  Allow the hands to rest on the sides of the belly.
9.  Stretching of limbs to reduce laziness.
10. To sit in dog position.
11. (For males) to spread the hands flat resting the elbows on the ground during sijdah.
12. To sit on four limbs with out any reason.
13. For the Imam to stand within the arch of the mosque, or the Imam standing on a high
     platform and Muqtadi (Followers) on lower ground or vice versa. (1)
14. The follower standing alone behind the row, if there is space in the row.
15. To keep any picture hanging in front or over the head.
16. To offer prayer with the uncovered head out of idleness.
17. To offer prayer in dirty clothes in which one does not like to move among the people.
18. Rubbing forehead on the earth to remove dust.
19. Looking towards the sky.
20. Offering sijdah on the turban (with out touching the forehead to the ground).
21. Counting (Ayat) verses.
22. To offer prayer wearing photo printed clothes.
23. Putting left hand over the right hand.
24. Leaning while standing.
25. Standing on toes or putting more weight on one foot then the other.
26. Keeping more than four fingers space in between both the legs.
27. Setting of hands without raising them (Raf-e-yadain)
28. Recitation of Ayat-e-sijdah by the Imam in Zuhr and Asr prayer.
29. Reciting longer Quranic Passage in second Rakat than the first Rakat
30. Yawning.
31. Offering prayers with eyes closed tight, but for fear of God and humility (Taqua) it is not
33. Leaving any sunnat.
34. Going in to sijdah or Ruku earlier than the Imam.
35. Performing both the sijdah with out a pause.
36. Saying prayer at the last moment.
37. Offering prayer at a disputed place.
38. Performing prayer where music is being played.
39. Offering prayer without a divider or any front ground (satrah) in the forest.
40. Not looking towards the shoulders at the time of salam.
41. The worshipper putting his baggages behind.
42. Closing doors of the mosque.
43. Offering prayer towards the face of a person although at a far off distance and there is
      nothing in between.
44. Tying turban in such
a way that the middle of the head is left open.
45. To offer prayer with the unful-filled urgent call of nature or in the state of acute hunger.
46. Not performing Qaum, Jalsa, Ruku and Sijdah satisfactorily (with peace of mind).
47. Offering prayer with a mask.
(Ghayatul Autar)
(1) For some scholars height means equal to one man height for others it is equal to length of a hand. If the height is less than this then it is not undesirable.

Offering prayer (Namaz) is undesirable (Makrooh) at the time of feeling nature call and pressure of gases. When food is kept at the time of prayer if not feeling like eating then offering prayer is desirable (not makrooh). If the person offering prayer is disturbed mentally then prayer is undesirable (Makrooh), the person who is offering prayer must be fully dedicated towards Allah (Huzur). It is Farz. (Ghayatul Autar)

Wearing red, yellow silk and other thin and transparent clothes through which the body is exposed, inspite of having new and better clothes, wearing old and dirty clothes and inspite of possessing turban or any other head cover saying prayer bareheaded, offering prayer in clothes of a person who does not offer prayer, covering head with the sheet like a woman, offering Farz prayer on a usurped land, public way, place of tying and sacrificing animals, place of throwing filth and in grave yard infront of graves, in the house or land of an infidel with out permission, and in a dark house is undesirable. (Hirzul Musallin)

At the time of going in to sijdah, pulling up clothes or trousers is not only undesirable (Makrooh) but also renders prayer void. (Hiezul Musallin). As it is a common error extra care should be taken to avoid it.

Allah does not accept prayer of those people who let their trousers hung below the ankles. (Abu Dawood)

If some body is offering prayer on the earth and other person spreads cloth or prayer carpet before him, offering sijdah on it is permissible. (Alamgiri)

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Circumstances Under Which Breaking
of Prayer (Namaz) Is Permissible

Breaking of prayer (Namaz) is some time Wajib (Necessary), Mustahab (Desirable), Mubah (Permissible), and some time prohibited (Haram).

It is Wajib in order to save the life, Mustahab to join congregational prayer or some other reason to make prayer perfect and Mubah for loss of wealth or property. Breaking prayer with out any reason is prohibited (Haram). (Baherul Raiq & Ghayatul Autar)

If one is engaged in prayer there is luggage or his family members sitting in the train, and the train moves breaking prayer and getting in to the train is correct.

During prayer if a snake comes, then breaking prayer out of fear or in order to kill it is also correct.

While in prayer a thief carries away shoes or something and there is fear that the thief will disappear by the time the Namaz is completed, then breaking the prayer in order to take back the articles, costing one Dirham or more, belonging to the person offering the prayer or other people is correct. (Ghayatul Autar)

During prayer (Namaz) one feels urgent call of nature, breaking prayer and attending to it is preferable (Mustahab).

During the prayer if it is noticed that a blind person is going towards a well without surrounding wall and there is a fear that the blind man may fall into it and die, if he is not stopped at once, if the Namazi does not stop the blind man by breaking his prayer, he will be a sinner.

If the clothes of child or others catch fire while engaged in prayer, it is obligatory (Farz) to discontinue the prayer and put off the fire to save the child.

During the prayer if father, mother, grand father, grand mother shout for help in some trouble, breaking prayer is Wajib (Essential). And father and mother suffering from illnes, going to attend the call of nature fall down or there is a fear of falling down, and if there is none to assist them then breaking prayer to help them is permissible.

If some body calls unnecessarily breaking Farz prayer is not permissible.

In case of Sunnat or Nafil prayer, if father, mother, grand father and grand mother call without knowing about the offering of the prayer (Namaz), breaking prayer and responding to them is essential (Wajib) whether they call necessarily or unnecessarily. If one does not break prayer to reply them, he will be a sinner, if they know that he is saying his prayer (Namaz) and call him without any trouble or necessity, one need not break his prayer to respond them. (Ghayatul Autar)

Important: It is written in Hadaya that if a person is offering prayer and someone comes and sits infront with his back towards the person offering prayer then it is permissible.

If some body passes across infront of a worshipper (Person offering prayer) there is no harm for the person praying but the person who goes across will be a sinner. (Durre Mukhtar)

In a big mosque or in the forest the limit for passing across is from the place of sijdah the distance up to which the sight of the worshipper falls. In small mosque and house the sight limit is not dependable. At these place unless there is a pillar or some thing in between, passing across a Namazi is a sin (Alamgiri)

If the passerby knows what a great sin it is, he would have preferred to stand there for forty days, or months or years, rather than passing across the worshipper (Bukhari Shareef Abu Dawood)

If two persons pass across, one of them who is nearer to the worshipper will be a sinner. (Alamgiri)

If the namazi is saying Namaz on such a raised platform that the parts of the body of the passerby are not visible to the worshipper then it will not be a sin, and if parts are visible to the worshipper then the passerby will be a sinner. (Alamgiri)

If prayer is being performed in a forest, the worshipper should fix stick of an arm’s length and a finger’s thickness as divider. (Satrah) If it is not possible to fix it then lay the stick length wise and not breadth wise. The divider is enough for the Imam and for the followers, the Imam would be the divider. In this condition if any body passes across them then he will not be a sinner. (Alamgiri)

The dividing stick should be laid down at a distance of three arms length infront of the right eyebrow of the Imam or the person offering the Namaz. (Ghayatul Autar)

Taking any article or anything from the front of the Namazi by extending hand is not a sin. (Ghayatul Autar)

Top   |  Faraiz  |  Sunnat   |  Wajibat  | The Actions Nullifying the Prayer The Undesirable Acts (Makroohat) For Prayer   |  Circumstances Under Which Breaking of Prayer is Permissible  |  Sijdah-e-Sahu (Sijdah For Errors In Namaz)


Sijdah-e-Sahu (Correct Sijdah) (Sijdah For Errors In Namaz)

Sijdah-e-sahu is essential in the following conditions.

1. Repetition of obligatory acts.
2. Delay in performing the obligatory acts.
3. Missing essential (Wajib) acts.
4. Repetition of essential acts.
5. Delay in essential (Wajib) acts. (Kuzani Alkafi)

Important: Missing obligatory (Farz) acts, the Namaz is also missed. Missing or repetition and delay in performance of traditional acts (Sunnat) will reduce the reward and render the Namaz defective. It is better to repeat the prayer afresh. The said acts if happend by mistake then Sijdah-e-Sahv is essential (Wajib) for rectifying the defect. In case it is done knowingly then the Sijdah-e-Sahu will not serve the purpose. One will have to repeat the prayer (Namaz) afresh. (Ghayatul Autar)

In case Sijdah-e-Sahu becomes essential (Wajib) after recitation of (Atahiyat) in the last Qaida, one should pronounce the words of Salam Alaikum by turning the head only to the right side and immediately there after should perform two Sijdahs in the same way. After performing two Sijdah, one should again sit for the completion of Qaida and complete the Namaz by reciting Atahiyat again followed by Durood Shareef etc. and then perform Salam on both the sides as usual. If Salam is said on both the sides afer Atahiyat then the Sijdah-e-Sahu will be void and the prayer will have to be repeated afresh. (Ghayatul Autar)

Sijdah-e-Sahu is not compulsory if Muqtadi (The followers) commits any mistake, but if the Imam commits a mistake, Sijdah-e-Sahu is compulsory for him as well as the followers behind him . A late comer in the prayer should also perform the Sijdah-e-Sahu along with the Imam and then perform the remaining prayer. In the remaining prayer if he makes a mistake, he will have to perform Sijdah-e-Sahu again. (Noorul Hudaya, Ghayatul Autar)

If one forgets the first Qaida and is about to stand but recollects his mistake and if he is nearer to the sitting position, then he should sit in Qaida and perform the prayer. He need not perform Sijdah-e-Sahu. If he is nearer to Qiyam (Standing position) he should not sit in Qaida but stand up and perform Sijdah-e-Sahu in the last Qaida of the prayer. (Noorul Hadaya)

If one forgets sitting in last Qaida and stands up then by the time he perform Sijdah for that Rakat if remembers that he had to sit in Qaida, he should sit down and perform Sijdah-e-Sahu on account of delay in obligatory (Farz) act. If he has performed Sijdah due to missing the last Qaida which is obligatory (Farz), the obligatory (Farz) prayer (Namaz) will be nullified. Then he can perform another rakat and these six rakats will be counted as Nafils. (Noorul Hudaya)

If one is in the last Qaida but stand up forgetfully, then before he performs Sijdah for that rakat, if remembers that he has to finish the prayers, he should sit down and performed Sijdah-e-Sahu and if he has perform Sijdah for the 5th rakat he should add one more rakat and perform Sijdah-e-Sahu. The four rakats will be obligatory (Farz) and two rakats will be treated as Nafil. (Noorul Hadaya).

The orders of Sijdah-e-Sahu are the same for obligatory (Farz), Essential (Wajib) or Traditional (Sunnat) prayer (Namaz) (Alamgiri)

If in one prayer a number of Essential (Wajib) acts are forgetton one Sijdah-e-Sahu is enough for all.

If some body commits mistake after Sajdah-e-Sahu he need not perform Sijdah-e-Sahu again otherwise there will be no end for it. (Alamgiri)

If a person recites Soora-e-Fateha twice in the first Rakat, he should perform Sijdah-e-Sahu, because in the first two rakats reciting Soora-e-Fateha is essential (Wajib) only once. If he does the same in the subsiquent two rakats he need not offer Sajdah-e-Sahu. (Alamgiri)

If a person remembers that he had to perform Sijdah-e-Sahu after saying salam on the both sides, then according to one saying it can be performed if he has not turned his head or talked to any body. But acording to another saying it can not be done since after saying salams on other side, it is rendered null and void and the prayer will have to be repeated afresh. (Shami, Alamgiri, Durre Mukhtar)

If a person due to forgetfulness after performing two rakats thinks that he has completed four rakats says salams and then realises his mistake, he should stand up immediately and complete four rakats and at the end perform Sijdah-e-Sahu due to delay in obligatory (Farz) act. And if he has done any act after the salams nullifying (Mufsid) Namaz he should repeat it afresh, and if the followers also forget and say salams they will not be out of the Namaz, due to the salam, separate Sijdah-e-Sahu would not be necessary for the followers. (Durre Mukhtar, Ahsanul Masail)

In case of doubt Sijdah-e-Sahu will be essential (Wajib) whether one acts according to his doubt or according to probability. (Alamgiri)

If there is a doubt in prayer for the first time, that how many rakats have been performed and one is not habituated to such suspicion, he should say his prayer again. If one had doubts many times then he should think over it and do which ever he thinks right. If he is unable to come to a decision he should follow the lesser number of rakats. (Noorul Hadaya)

Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Malik etc, from Abu Sayeed Khudri Raz. have reported that Anhazrat Sal'am said “if any one of you doubts about the number of rakats performed in your prayer three or four, he should remove his doubt and depend upon which you are sure and perform two Sajdah-e-Sahu before saying salams. If he performed five rakats then the Sajdah-e-Sahu will be taken as sixth rakat, and if he had completed four rakat the devil will be humiliated by offering Sijdah-e-Sahu. Ibne Maja has also narrated this. (Noorul Hadaya)

If there is doubt about performing One, Two Three, or Four rakats, one should take lesser number into account. (Noorul Hadaya)

If there is difference of opinion between Imam and Mukhtadees (the followers in the group prayer) in performance of prayer, and the Imam is sure about four rakats then the opinion of the Imam will be taken as correct. The prayer will not be repeated on the opinion of the followers. But if the Imam had doubt then the opinion of the followers will be taken as correct. (Alamgiri)

If there is difference of opinion among the followers. Some say that they have performed three rakats and some say four; in this condition the opinion of the group which is supported by the Imam will be considered as reliable even though it the Imam speaks in favour of a single person. (Alamgiri)

In congregational prayer one Muqtadi believes in performing three rakats and other Muqtadi believes in four rakats and the Imam and other Muqtadees have doubt about it, in this situation the prayer should be taken as correctly performed. (Alamgiri)

If one Muqtadi believes that the Imam has performed three rakats and the Imam and the group of followers have doubt about it, in this condition the prayer will be offered afresh as precautionary measure. (Alamgiri)

After completion of the prayer, if someone reports that he has performed three or four rakats instead of two or three, or five instead of four rakats, as precautionary measure, the prayer should be repeated, although in his opinion it is wrong. (Alamgiri)

If there is difference of opinion between Imam and Muqtadees and the Imam is quite sure about it, then need not say the Namaz afresh. (Durre Mukhtar)

After making ablution, first put right foot on the prayer carpet (Musallah) and recite the following Ayat with Tasmia:-

   (S6-A79) I have set my face towards God who has created the sky and the earth, and I am not among the infidels (Mushrik). (Zaoq Shaoq Namaz)
I have set my face towards God who has created the sky and the earth,
and I am not among the infidels (Mushrik). (Zaoq Shaoq Namaz)

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